https://garden.org/plants/search/advanced/ might be a starting point.
You can select plants with edible fruits (for example), but you don't get all the results because there are too many.
There also doesn't appear to be an easy way to download their database, though you could use a site scraper or similar.
Detail pages like https://garden.org/plants/view/...
Wikidata has a category "Edible plants"
This would be the data behind this list, but most languages will also be linked.
You can use the Sparql front-end to build a query: