Can anyone point me toward a record of global oil consumption over the past 100 years, up to 2016 or 2017?
The U.S. Energy Information Administration has data on global oil consumption going back to 1980:
BP publishes an annual statistical review of energy that includes oil consumption. It provides a spreadsheet that goes back to 1965:
For anything before that time, you'll probably have to search through old reports or books. For example, I scanned through the UN Statistical Yearbook and found production stats for oil, but not oil consumption (there was consumption data for total energy).