The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF) has a rather impressive data collection available via batch scripts, downloadable files or even tailored formats. The first two are freely available (under specific conditions) for non-commercial research but registration is necessary.
Just to give an example, the GRIB dataset lists 4115 ...
This list is (and may always be) incomplete. Please add to it when you can.
NOAA's ISD data (goes back to ~1900 in some cases):
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isd (home page)
ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/ (direct link to data, some stations include multiple report per hour in some cases)
https://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/isd-lite/ (direct link ...
Here is my take on it: I use R and its IDE RStudio.
The hard part, cleaning the data, is luckily done. Sharing the CSV via a dropbox link is not bad. The file is well structured. To improve it you could add a licence and provide a bit more information about the source. For more information see our certificates.
If you want to publish in a more "...
For international and historical data, and for a modest number of requests per day, I personally recommend the Wunderground API. Once you register, you can get 500 free requests per day.
The URL for historical data will look like this:
I've posted a sample code (python 2.7) ...
You have a few options for real time (or "near real time", which is when you have a delay between the collection & time to serve it, or for those that sample at a lower cadence)
There are a lot of considerations when dealing with 'real time' data:
Who is the intended audience? (and do they already have standards for serving this type of data?)
Is the ...
The NOAA / National Weather Service has an archive from the Weather Prediction Center, but it only started archiving most products a few years ago:
Most of what's archived are weather maps (like what ...
The UNDP gathers and reports data along the line of what you are looking for. I think its a matter of finding the right tables. They collect historic data as well as predicating climate changes to countries.
The following link is a repository of some reports and raw data for 61 countries, mostly africa, middle east and south america. Each country has a zip ...
forecast.io also provides historical forecasts through their API. You can call a past date and time and still get the daily, hourly, and minute forecasts (in addition to actual forecasts). That is, ask for the weather on April 16th and will include forecasts for April 20th in the daily summaries.
It's free for under 1,000 calls per day, and then $1 for 10,...
Get the data from BigQuery:
SELECT name, stn, a.wban, TIMESTAMP(CONCAT(year, '-', mo, '-', da)) date, temp, prcp
FROM `bigquery-public-data.noaa_gsod.gsod2*` a
AND name LIKE '%...
A remodel of weather since 1979, based on many many measurements. The resulting dataset contains daily to hourly values around the globe for many meteorological and climatological parameters such as temperatures, water content, wind, radiation and various fluxes.
The most up to date version of ...
https://developer.forecast.io/ (free for low use, then paid after that)
The NOAA data is used by a developer in Chicago to explore the correlation between weather and crime.
Sounds like you could be interested in the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) standard published by the OGC. It's an open standard which describes a service to publish sensor readings and meta data.
I haven't been using it for a while now but I had an SOS server from 52North running successfully for a while.
You can then download a "quickview" by clicking the little "picture" icon:
The full resolution data seemingly require payment.
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Try FENGYUN Satellite Data Center. Getting the data from it can be a little tricky.
First click one of the ...
NOAA provides weather data. You can see the general information and visualization at http://www.weather.gov/ Specific data products are found at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/most-popular-data When you click on a dataset you are interested, there is technical documentation and material to guide you in the use of the data. For example, local climatological data ...
UK open data is available. See: http://data.gov.uk/dataset/metoffice_uklocs3hr_fc
hourly observations for approximately 150 UK observing stations, daily
site specific and 3 hourly site specific forecasts for approximately
5000 UK locations.
As no one's given anything else so far, so might as well make this an official answer.
I'm not aware of any free APIs specifically, but there are various data sources that might be able to give you what you need:
The US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Lab offers maps of solar radiation in the US, both annual and monthly averages, although ...
For UK & Europe solar data, I've used Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) before. This may be more of a "typical meteorological year" as opposed to a climate database/almanac/normal. It's also data, not an API.
PVSyst has a good resource on finding solar data: Meteo data sources.
If you are looking for global temperatures that are not constrained to political borders, then you can access 150 years of global temperatures either as a dataset or with Google Earth as an interface. The data is based on latitude and longitude grids of 5 degrees and includes temperature, precipitation, pressure, etc..
The two links below are NOAA/NWS weather terms used in their datasets:
This document is the vocabulary for the annual summaries:
This document is the vocabulary for the daily summaries
These are a ...
There are several related opendata.stackexchange related questions to weather in Europe. Here is a compendium of questions/answers:
Weather radar data for Europe, especially Latvia
Database with monthly climate/weather data by country
What data source for cloud coverage available with forecast and how to parse it?
Historical Weather Forecasts
How might ...
You should check out http://worldclim.org/. They have crunched a variety of data sets to produce average temperature and rainfall for each month of the year for most of the earth's surface at a sub-1km resolution. The data is downloadable as raster GIS files that you can load into PostGIS or desktop GIS packages. If you want the underlying data that they ...
The NOAA National Oceangraphic Data Center (NODC) maintains data (and datasets) for sea levels and tides. You can get current (hourly) or historic data back to 1994. The data is collected from 289 stations around the world.
We (met.no) plan on publishing a JSON-LD vocabulary for climate/weather data, when we release our public portal later this year. We'll be publishing JSON-LD ourselves as our primary data format.
To the best of my knowledge, there isn't anything else stable out there yet suitable for this kind of use. The closest you get, AFAIK, is http://codes.wmo.int/
I have written some sample code for directly building a CSV starting with a given date and ending with a given date: https://github.com/joshmalina/pollution/blob/master/notebooks/Build_historical_weather_data.ipynb
The city is currently set to Beijing, but you can change that easily. The data will also be cleaned of null values.
This is very coarse data from the worldbank. It shows historical average temperature per country:
Using their Climate API you can get slightly more detailed information and by per year. I believe they have data going back to 1961.
We have the data you are asking for in our regional Open Data portal (Basque Country, Spain), so I guess you could have it without purchasing it. I do not know how NOAA works, but here, you could send a message to the people in charge of the Open Data portal and they always answer your demands.
The World Glacier Monitoring Service
The World Glacier Monitoring Service hosts database with mainly mass balance, front variation and thickness change data. The main website is:
http://wgms.ch/ the map with data can be found here: http://www.wgms.ch/metadatabrowser.html
The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space initiative hosts another ...