The U.S. Census Bureau's mission "is to serve as the leading source of quality data about the nation's people and economy." Use this tag for data collected and/or published by the US Census Bureau.
The US Census Bureau manages a number of data collection projects for the US government. While it was originally created to count the population for purposes of legislative apportionment, they now gather much more data about individual citizens and where and how they live. This data is primarily published in the Decennial Census of Population and Housing and the American Community Survey (ACS).
In addition, in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Census conducts the Current Population Survey (CPS), which is the primary source of national employment statistics and other economic data.