Where are you searching? The NOAA and all of its child departments/organizations provide a plethora of satellite and API datasets, including satellite datasets accessible via API. The list below is a tiny sampling of all three; I cannot stress enough how much more data there is. NOAA is basically a cornucopia of satellite/API datasets.
API Web Service - ...
The UK open data site has datasets for both stations (which you have) and what they call the centre-lines of the railway track for the network. It is in a shapefile.
Yes, there is ample data for you to play with.
stuffin.space uses a ridiculous amount of data from :
Satellite data - https://www.space-track.org/
Satellite.js - makes it easy to interpret velocity, and other SGP4/SDP4 calculations. (GITHUB - https://github.com/shashwatak/satellite-js)
A real-time interactive WebGL visualisation of objects in Earth orbit @ ...
That is definitely not a common/standard data format (at least that I've ever seen). You'll probably have to write your own parser. I found a GitHub project called Asteroid-Scraper that claims to be a set of Python scripts for working with JPL PDS data; could be useful?
I have come across sites like publicartarchive.org.
But I believe you may need to use a search engine like google to find country specific ones and aggregate data.
Also see this previous answer that can help in retrieving data.
From my similar experience in a weeks-long search for an alternative to NOAA's CLASS archive, the answer is apparently no, or not yet. And AWS only has images, not other relevant variables of interest e.g. aerosol optical depth values.
That said, here's GOES-R decoder instructions.
The GOES-R decoder supports the ingest and display of NOAAport provisional ...