Here you can download a database of sensor readings (mostly thermocouples) from a steelcasting plant.
The largest file inside the 1 GB Zip file in the POC1 folder contains 11 million records in "long" format (key-value store). There is also some documentation.
Edit: This dataset was ...
The UCI Machine Learning Repository has a quite large sensor dataset
Gas sensor array under flow modulation
The data set contains 58 time series acquired from 16 chemical sensors under gas flow modulation conditions. The sensors were exposed to different gaseous binary mixtures of acetone and ethanol.
The data set is organized in two 'csv' files, 'rawdata....
There are a few academic datasets that could be useful. The most common datasets are video though.
The Stanford Drone Dataset
The Zurich Urban Micro Aerial Vehicle Dataset
Small UAV Position and Attitude, Raw Sensor, and Aerial Imagery Data Collected over Farm ...
Instead of the NHTSA FAR data, you may want to look at the NHTSA Vehicle Crash Test Database. This does contain accelerometer data.
That said, I doubt they are using a phone's accelerometer to create this dataset.
Not sure if this dataset matches your requirements completely. At least it reads as a dataset from a German logistics company having sensors mounted on shipping containers. The description is in German but the field names of the dataset are mainly in English.
It contains lat/ lon coordinates, motion, humidity and temperature values. And it comes in csv ...