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You can get all sorts of gridded population data (e.g. counts or density) from the Worldpop website, this includes Madagascar. Methodology is discussed here.


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As Anthony mentioned, tract-level American Community Survey (ACS) data is only published as part of the 5-year series. The most recent data that's available at the tract level is from the 2014-2018 ACS. Tract-level estimates are not reliable enough to be published annually. There's also the decennial census, but the number of variables is more limited and ...


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This excel table includes a list with more than 2k German cities, their state and municipality. It also includes the surface of each city, its population (females, males, total) and its density (population pro km²). More related stats can be found on the https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Laender-Regionen/Regionales/_inhalt.html.


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