I suggest looking into these datasets, most of the parameters you mentioned are available there. I assume you're looking for both — observations and forecasts.
NOAA Wave Watch III (NWW3) Ocean Wave Model (forecast)
NOAA Blended Sea Winds (aggregation of satellite observations and numerical weather prediction)
Global Ocean Physics Analysis And Forecast
Check out www.wxtiles.com, it has most of those layers available free with an OpenLayers API. Note that it sits on top of an TMS map tile server, so you can access tiles like so: http://wx.wxtiles.com/tile/20160319_12z/rain/20160320_00z/4/13/7.png (this link will break shortly after the forecast expires).
The API allows you to request current forecasts (the ...
WMO OSCAR has a (complete?¹) list of current space-borne high resolution optical imagers, defined as instruments with a "spatial resolution in the range of less than 1 m to a few 10 m.". Scroll down to "Current instruments". I'm not an expert in high-resolution optical imagers, but I suspect the problems are as follows:
The higher the resolution, the ...
I answered a question similar to this that has a useful resource for current sea level information:
What is the best source of open data on sea level rise in Bangladesh and India?
The NOAA National Oceangraphic Data Center (NODC) maintains data (and datasets) for sea levels and tides. You can get current (hourly) or historic data back to 1994. The ...
European data can be obtained from ECMWF at http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily/levtype=sfc/ and they have an API https://software.ecmwf.int/wiki/display/WEBAPI/Python+ERA-interim+examples
The "Israel's Mediterranean Sharon sea cliff, 2006" dataset is available via OpenTopography. It covers "a 30-km-stretch of coastal cliffs in central Israel that lie between the cities of Herzlia in the south and Olga in the north". I know data have also been collected over the Dead Sea rift but they are not yet publicly available.
Take a look at Marineregions.org, specifically look under IHO Sea Areas. These are boundaries of oceans and seas as defined by the International Hyrdographic Association. When you go to download it you'll be prompted to supply a name and email address, but the site is non-profit and run by a marine institute in Belgium.
I went ahead and downloaded it to ...
Here's that dataset (Major_Ocean_Currents_arrowPolys_30m) in GeoJSON
Pyesridump is a very powerful tool you can use to liberate data from ESRI's silos.
This literally took me less than a minute to strip it out, load into geojson.io, and then save it as a gist.
Not really the answer you might expect, but I use matplotlib basemap to plot maps and I can add whatever I want, including water. I think you can have coordinates data from there, but it needs to dive into the code. http://matplotlib.org/basemap/
Please note that it will be replaced by cartopy. http://scitools.org.uk/cartopy/
Have you seen the Climatological Database for the World's Oceans (CLIWOC)? It's built from ship's logs and has the information that you are looking for, albeit from 1750-1850. Should work if you don't need contemporary data.
Just posted an answer here: Extensive Weather or Sea State API?
Late answer but in case anyone else finds this post.
We released our API called Storm Glass a couple of months back and it provides up to 22 attributes, including:
Coastal Sea Level