Check global-refugees.info's data. It's available as a excel spreadsheet (.xlsx). And they also have some code explaining the process they used for making the visualizations on their website and on github
The main source of all the articles and visualizations is this http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/...
One possible source would be The Migrant Files. It's a cross-border journalism project. If you scroll down on the main page, you'll find links to data, such as:
All data on deporations
All data on migrant and refugee deaths
There are links and references in each of the data sources.
There is a Forbes article with an interactive graphic for county-to-country migration based on IRS tax records. Each county-to-county move must have at least 10 people, so as to protect privacy. The available years won't go back as far you ask.
The link given as a source is available from the Internet Archive.
But the ...
The German Federal Statistics Office was so kind to provide me data on the issue in Germany:
On page 190, you will find the table
13 Wissenschaftliches und künstlerisches Personal nach Herkunftsländern und Fächergruppen der fachlichen ...
I am a student Employee at a state data center. If you are willing to pay for the time, your state data center can gather the data for you, or your state data center can direct you to the source.
As far as employment, it sounds like you want Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. These numbers are for states/MSA's at the smallest, but also can be all ...
The Department of Homeland Security has a table with breakdown by State, but not by Visa type. Probably you can find similar data sets for previous years.
Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by State or Territory of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2013
(XLS, 175 KB)
Also from DHS is a breakdown ...