National GIS Resources
NHGIS has historical data for the United States
Great Britain Historical Geographical Information System (GBHGIS)
The Great Britain Historical GIS (Main)
GBHGIS Data Access
National Heritage List for England (NHLE) Listing Data
The US National Historical GIS
The China Historical GIS
Chinese Civilization in Time and Space
Wikipedia has a List of North American settlements by year of foundation, formatted as a sortable table. You can sort this list by country, and copy-paste the United States section into a spreadsheet. This data set contains the following fields:
Name of settlement
Subdivision (state or province)
It does not have lat/long coordinates. ...
Here are a few sources I found by searching for "historical geospatial data." This is not an exhaustive list. I encourage you to do the same search, and if you find other sources please post them as an answer.
Historical Country Boundaries
For Historical Country Boundaries, check out this post on GIS Lounge. Most of the date ranges are outside your target ...
NOAA is where you should be looking which also has enough historical data and a lot of modalities. They have different options for download. If you are looking for an API, this is a starting point.
For optical astronomy, SDSS is where you should be looking at.
ESO has digitized sky surveys (DSS) from the pre-digital era.
I have worked with astronomers for around 9yrs helping them with data science and none of them use stuff from really old catalogs.
Hope this helps.
There are many services that provide OHLC aggregated data for crypto markets both free and paid and in many cases exchanges themselves provide APIs to access that kind of aggregated data (like BitMEX for example), but if you're looking for more granular, high resolution historical tick-by-tick data there isn't that much of a choice or it's very expensive.
You can now download certain historical datasets for the US directly within R, using the USABoundaries package. The code to do so is straightforward. For example, to download a shapefile containing the boundaries of US counties in 1910:
map <- us_counties(map_date = "1910-01-01", resolution = "high")
st_write(obj = map,...