Here are a few sources I found by searching for "historical geospatial data." This is not an exhaustive list. I encourage you to do the same search, and if you find other sources please post them as an answer.
Historical Country Boundaries
For Historical Country Boundaries, check out this post on GIS Lounge. Most of the date ranges are outside your target ...
NOAA is where you should be looking which also has enough historical data and a lot of modalities. They have different options for download. If you are looking for an API, this is a starting point.
Thomas J. Holmes compiled data on Walmart store openings from 1962-2006, which you can download
You could compare to the 2017 data from Brandify to find stores opened since 2006 (which stayed open until 2017).
I don't know of any source of store-closing data.
Open Street Map (OSM) has a tag name=Walmart.
In December 2017 Brandify provided Open Street Map with a database of all Walmart locations, and details This import took place January 2nd, 2018 and used OSM Conflator.
So it's unlikely to have when the store was opened.
For optical astronomy, SDSS is where you should be looking at.
ESO has digitized sky surveys (DSS) from the pre-digital era.
I have worked with astronomers for around 9yrs helping them with data science and none of them use stuff from really old catalogs.
Hope this helps.
There are many services that provide OHLC aggregated data for crypto markets both free and paid and in many cases exchanges themselves provide APIs to access that kind of aggregated data (like BitMEX for example), but if you're looking for more granular, high resolution historical tick-by-tick data there isn't that much of a choice or it's very expensive.