I found some promising hits from a Google search for "glacial extent shapefile bering sea," including:
ArcGIS online layer (global extent): Ice extent and coastline at the last glacial maximum
shapefiles of Pleistocene and Wisconsonian glacial extents in Alaska
A number of scientific articles also turned up during that search. If you look at those articles ...
The Nasa JPL hosts continent-scale mosaic DEMs (with voids corrected), and you can access using the Google Earth Engine API:
EDDMapS (Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System) has reports of invasive species in the United States. This website is developed and maintained by the University of Georgia. It's very reliable data, but the website is on the slow side.
Features of this dataset:
Distribution is usually limited to the United States, and occasionally southern parts ...
Maybe you can combine the indicators EN.RUR.DNST ("Rural population density (rural population per sq. km of arable land") and SI.SPR.PCAP ("Survey mean consumption or income per capita, total population (2011 PPP $ per day))" provided by the World Bank's Indicators API . These datasets are resolved on a on a per-country basis not on a "per-pixel" basis.
the USWTDB (US Wind Turbine DataBase), as seen on hackernews
The USWTDB combines a 2014 USGS data set (48,956 wind turbines, including decommissioned and duplicate turbines) with a 2017 LBNL data set (43,827 wind turbines) and includes regular updates from AWEA’s WindIQ as well as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ...
Important Bird Areas are part of The World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. The terms and conditions of use clearly state that redistribution is not allowed. See the relevant section quoted below:
4. No reposting and/or redistribution
Except as provided in this section 4, all forms of reposting, and any sub-licensing, reselling, or other forms of ...