For international and historical data, and for a modest number of requests per day, I personally recommend the Wunderground API. Once you register, you can get 500 free requests per day.
The URL for historical data will look like this:
I've posted a sample code (python 2.7) ...
In the future, Wikidata will be the best, but for now, the most pragmatic solution is to use DBpedia.
Go to the Smartphone page of DBpedia
Scroll to the is dbpprop:type of section
On the right is a list of 300 smartphones
Each of these pages has a lot of information like CPU speed, weight, battery, storage, etc
This information is available as RDF/JSON/CSV. ...
I found the spatial history project, which give month to month changes of the front lines. The article covers all interesting information and you can download the dataset (after the first figure) - viz., EuropeanBorders_WWII.zip (~260 MB).
The Global Administrative Areas dataset is available as a shapefile or file geodatabase;
Also as several other handy formats (only available when you download an individual country though);
Google Earth KMZ
Given you're interested in Europe it might be best to download the whole globe (found here ...
The OpenCorporates project at https://opencorporates.com/ has more than 2.5 million entries for companies registered in the Netherlands as well: https://opencorporates.com/companies/nl
APIs and developer information for the project can be found at http://api.opencorporates.com/
I would suggest looking into scraping/programmatically downloading this data from Wikipedia. The data can be found in the right infobox of device pages (such as http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPhone_3G). You can get a list of devices at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartphone#Devices and also a comparison table which might have everything you want at http://en....
For US data, the NHGIS project is by far the best source. From their home page:
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS)
provides, free of charge, aggregate census data and GIS-compatible
boundary files for the United States between 1790 and 2014.
I also found that the Association of American Geographers runs this Historical GIS ...
Whilst onegeology.org is great, and certainly there are a lot of European Geology WMS and some WFS services available. In this situation I think that currently (a) you might be better off going to the EGDI portal. European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) is a collective project of the European Geological Surveys, and EGDI is intended to showcase all ...
A simple google of "municipality 2017 shapefile of Luxembourg" gives me this link which provides this shapefile.
In general the http://www.europeandataportal.eu is a good place to look for European data.
There are several related opendata.stackexchange related questions to weather in Europe. Here is a compendium of questions/answers:
Weather radar data for Europe, especially Latvia
Database with monthly climate/weather data by country
What data source for cloud coverage available with forecast and how to parse it?
Historical Weather Forecasts
How might ...
Here is my obligatory pointer to overpass turbo, a "graphic" way to explore the data quality for certain POIs (points of interest) in the OpenStreetMap database.
This examplary query for amenity=restaurant in Rome (patience: the query takes several seconds to execute) yields (probably incomplete) 543 locations with varying metadata.
How-to: For a given POI,...
I think you may find European DEM data useful. It can be retrieved with this link : http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eu-dem
This not really Open Data, rather free data that needs you to mention you used it, but I'm unsure I understood exactly what you need, because you mix the need for data and the need for extracted info from your data.
To find ...
The WHO provides global data for many cities. It doesn't seem to break down the overall air pollution into molecular components, though.
Website with details
Ambient (outdoor) air pollution database, by country and city (Excel file)
Many individual cities or regions provide air quality data. A short example, although basically every city or region will ...
I have written some sample code for directly building a CSV starting with a given date and ending with a given date: https://github.com/joshmalina/pollution/blob/master/notebooks/Build_historical_weather_data.ipynb
The city is currently set to Beijing, but you can change that easily. The data will also be cleaned of null values.
I would take a look at these sources:
All about POIs (points of interest) in OSM
Question on help.OSM about extracting POIs from a region
POI API (aka Venues) (note: not open data)
Search / Business APIs (note: not open data)
For Europe you can find historical data in this database:
not with lat lon but rather NUTS-3 regions. you can obtain coordinates for the regions using geopy
Have you tried Google BigQuery?
GBQ has now loaded climate data worldwide from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) from over 9,000 weather stations. The data includes 2015 and 2016.
You can query the climate data set using SQL. This queries 14 days of max temperatures (tested just now):
SELECT year, mo, da, temp FROM [bigquery-public-...
If you want an official source for European administrative GIS data, check Eurostat's website. Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union. They gather (GIS) data from member states.
You will find among other the NUTS zones (administrative units), communes and commune centroids for different scales. The last reference year is 2013, but the data ...
For Great Britain, the Food Standards Authority make available an API which has the food hygiene ratings for every place that serves food in the local authorities that operate the scheme.
Whilst this data does include places not normally open to the public (there are some office canteens, schools, etc.) their data is reasonably well classified and free to ...
The UK Department for Transport (DFT) provides a traffic data set for the city of London, for 2000 to 2013.
There are two main data sets:
AADF - Annual average daily flow
AADF figures give the number of vehicles that will drive on that stretch of road on an average day of the year. For information on how AADFs are ...
For the Netherlands someone built this map showing all passenger trains in currently in operation: http://spoorkaart.mwnn.nl/
This map is based on the data from this website: http://openov.nl/ (in Dutch, scroll all the way down for the data sets)
From Antony Joseph's answer: I believe this might be exactly what you're looking for: http://tracker....
You can apply to use the freely available Waze API for road conditions here.
For road conditions in Europe there are links for Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, UK, and Switzerland here
For road conditions in the United States you can look at each states ...
Can I suggest OneGeology.org. It's a portal for open geological data from around the world.
It's mostly designed around their web map portal; http://portal.onegeology.org/OnegeologyGlobal/ which overlays Web Map Services (WMS) from many of the world's geological surveys. The complexity and number of layers can make it slow to load though.
What I suspect ...
A way is to perform an overpass-turbo query on OpenStreetMap data, like this one for Luxembourg: http://overpass-turbo.eu/s/n7b and then download the data as geojson or gpx. You can then easily convert to a shp in a GIS. The key-value pair to look for is:
"admin_level" = "8". You can query others subdivisions by changing this number, see possible values on ...