ConceptNet is a semantic network containing lots of things computers should know about the world, especially when understanding text written by people.
Trying to reproduce your relation-sequences yields:
finger PartOf hand IsA body part, which looks surprisingly "dead end".
chair IsA seat RelatedTo furniture MadeOf wood ...
The English Language & Usage stackexchange site has a question with answers related to your question
What's the largest open-source dictionary that includes brief definitions of each word?
The popular answer is WordNet from Princeton. You can either browse or download the full data set, although it's about 10 years old.
The license allows ...
The cmudict provides phonetic spellings of a sizable number of American English words. The CELEX database is a similar project; you can select which data you want and download wordlists at WebCelex. Part-of-speech data (word class) is also available in CELEX. The CELEX download interface is somewhat frustrating, but you should only need to use it right ...
What you're trying to do is called named entity recognition. There exist several typical datasets for it, such as:
CoNLL-2002: free. 4 types of entities are tagged: locations, persons, organizations, and miscellaneous entities that do not belong in any of the three previous categories.
CoNLL-2003: free. 4 types of entities are tagged: locations, persons, ...
Wiktionary is the Wikimedia project's dictionary. Here is an example of a page, although the definitions are still quite technical:
Additionally, like simple.wikipedia, there is a Simple English Wiktionary page. Here is an example:
The definition you are looking for:
The New General Service List (updated just a few weeks ago) is a list of "the most important words for second language learners of English".
It ranks the top three thousand headwords (plus more words within each headword, such as plurals and tenses).
So it won't cover all the words in your list, and it's really indicating "usefullness" rather than ...
WordNet is a (free) semantic database of the English language. You could query for example the complete hyponym tree of the term "inhabitant". Depending on your application, it could be a disadvantage that WordNet also contains historical ethnicities or nationalities.
For language names, an excellent database is Glottolog.
Once I compiled a dictionary of ...
Age-of-acquisition ratings for 30,000 English words (2012):
List of words
Age-of-acquisition, imagery, concreteness, familiarity, and ambiguity measures for 1,944 words (1980):
List of words is within the article, but see also 3.
Compilation and comparison of many sources (50,000 words, 2012):
Lingua Libre has a lot of pronunciation recordings, including in English, by many speakers:
Unfortunately I have not found an easy way to find out what words have the most pronunciations. You might have to download the ...
The CMU Pronunciation Dictionary sounds like it would be useful for something like this:
It has pronunciation guides for 134,000 English words and uses the ARPAbet, which is directly mappable to IPA (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arpabet)
This particular dictionary's legal notice says that:
Users are not entitled to [...] transmit [..] it on any other website without the express permission of Pearson.
You must not use data mining, robots, scraping or similar data gathering or extraction methods on any part of this Site without our express prior written consent (my emphasis)
So either ...
Given that language is not a fixed thing, I'd hesitate to put much stock in a fixed database of "definite" stems.
Here's the source code for the NLTK (python) Porter stemmer (GPL). It looks like it has no serious dependencies on anything else in NLTK -- just an interface that you could discard and some stuff for unicode compatibility that you could adapt. ...
I am not 100% sure if the following links are useful for you. Please let me know if you are looking for something else.
I don't know a corpus, but I know a way to create one. If you know how to program you can use the Facebook API and download all the public facebook status from USA with their comments. Then you can use them as a corpus.
Info about Facebook API
I found that the UCLA Phonetics Lab (Archive) page has word lists with sound samples and IPA spelling. There are no parts of speech unfortunately.
They mention that only a fraction of data is online. If this is the right format, I'd contact them and ask to share more.
This python package can pluralize words for you, you can just run your entire dictionary through it to get the plural forms: http://www.clips.ua.ac.be/pages/pattern-en#pluralization
For this you first need Python, I myself use winpython, but any python installation would do. You can then download the pattern package here: http://www.clips.ua.ac.be/pattern
Anki is a flashcard tool for computers and phones. A cool thing is that you can use the decks for other purposes.
As on example, the deck "500 Word English Pronunciation with IPA and Audio" (link) contains 500 words formatted like this:
Audio [non-mp3 audio]
Explanation -[ɨ] is either [ɪ] or [ə]
To get ...
As I can understand, you want something custom. I don't know any database or any library where you can have access on the dictionary of the words, but you can see here a greek version where it works like you describe on your question. If you know python, you can change it a bit and make it to fit on your problem
Edit: Here are some useful Ruby packages I've used:
There's also a full suite package named Treat which contains stemming among other things: https://github.com/louismullie/treat
Truth be told, Python has the better packages for this, but just in case you're trying to do it ...
If you have to treat long, natural English, I would go for the Porter stemming algorithm (with implementations) in order to stem both the text and your dictionary and then simply do (Python/pseudo-code):
for word in stemmed_document:
if word in stemmed_dictionary:
pass # do something with a matching word stem
EF English Proficiency Index (2013)
"The EF English Proficiency Index calculates a
country’s average adult English skill level using data
from two different EF English tests completed by
hundreds of thousands of adults every year"
"The EF EPI third edition was calculated using
2012 test data from about 750,000 test takers. Only
countries with a ...