There's a good list of weather data sources on this excellent website created by Robin Wilson, which I duplicate here in case that site ever goes away:
WorldClim: Climate data for past, present and predicted future conditions. Includes temperature (min, max, mean) and precipitation. 1km x 1km resolution.
NCAR GIS Climate Change Scenarios: Lots of data from ...
Finally I found some useful links for station-based data for period 1981-2010:
data for Austria:
data for Germany:
data for switzerland: