I think data.worldbank.org is going to be your best bet for getting this information.
Here is a direct link to the indicator for "Adult literacy rate, population 15+ years, both sexes (%)" (SE.ADT.LITR.ZS)
You can click "Databank" from that link to go to a table generator where you can limit your query ...
This website claims to contain a complete [list of?] postal code[s] in Indonesia
It is not in a good machine readable format, but the html uses <pre> tags with makes much more easier script the data off there.
Natural Earth Data has Rivers and Lake Centerlines and Lakes and Reservoirs.
The USGS Earth Explorer will let you download data from anywhere in the world. Type "Kazakhstan" into the place search criteria box, click over to data sets and type "hydro" into the data set search box. The dataset called GTOPO30 HYDRO1K is a hydrology raster. There's a download ...
You can have a look at OpenStreetMap (OSM).
In OSM, administrative boundaries are represented using the key boundary=administrative and levels of these boundaries are represented by the key admin_level=*. On this wiki page, you'll find a table for the correspondance between the level number and the type of the boundaries for many countries of the world. ...
Given the breadth of your question, there are probably a lot of other good resources which should be listed, but here are three of the big ones.
The Population Reference Bureau's DataFinder provides access to many data sets. From what I can tell, it would be a manual/interactive process to filter down to the data set you want and then download it as an ...
I don't see any link to here :
If you are a ESRI ArcGIS Desktop user then they have ArcGIS Online that has these polygons that you can download:
Finally, if you live in those areas or not, you may need to ...
This unofficial blog has the top names per group (16 Newar, 15 Khas- Chhetri/Thakuri/Sanyasi, 15 Khas-Brahmin, 5 Tamang, 5 Magar)
The comments include more info.
If you search for individual group, you can find more names. For example:
Have you checked this out ? http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/
Spatial datasets for mass transit are usually published by municipal or state / district level governments (if at all), so I think it's going to be tough going in trying to find an open dataset for those cities. This might be worth a look for some of the supporting datasets you're interested in (population density and so forth):
For Cambodia, under Maps and ...
See if this is what you are looking for ?
ESRI has their Open data
or you can google it to find them.
Maybe contact universities Geography department and they may have them.