Can anyone point me to time series data in the domain of machine monitoring/condition monitoring (for example, vibration analysis data)?
I would go to statistical analysis software documentation (like the SAS/QC product, or the R quality contral task view) and look at the data sets used as examples for the particular type of machine condition/monitoring application you're looking for
check out monitoring (shewhart charts, MVP procedures) and reliability procedures.
In R, check out the survival task view: http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/Survival.html
(survival analysis is the parent area of reliability, you use the same machinery to think about survival of a patient with cancer X as you do for an alternator with coil type Y).