content doesn't matter.
Shapefiles (.shp) come in sets of files - you should have at minimum a set of 3 files with the same filename and different extensions - a .shp, .shx and .dbf (there may be others alongside). The attributes are stored only in the dbf file, specifically it's dBase IV format, so if the actual content in terms of the shape doesn't matter, you can just edit the dbf file. As lots of applications can write out dBase IV (although it's a bit old!), you can get any shapefile and just edit the .dbf to contain the attributes with the names that you want. I'd refer to this other question for recommendations on .dbf file editing.
What kind of data is this [...]
The attributes you've listed don't look like any specific standard of data I recognise, but spatial datasets are very variable, it might not be any kind of standard or known open dataset. But sounds like that's maybe not important to you.
where do I get a file to test the code on?
Like Mike Dolan suggests above, USA tiger datasets are available as shapefiles. Or (as I see from your profile you're in the Netherlands) here's some shapefiles you can download of the Netherlands: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/eea-reference-grids-2/gis-files/netherlands-shapefile.