I'm looking for a database of physical characteristics of the Earth at an arbitrary lat/long.
For example, a lat/long in the general vicinity of:
-1.710140, -52.961935would result in river
27.987785, 86.925013would result in mountain
-80.926282, 112.655179would result in tundra
11.373333,142.591667would result in oceanic trench
This would be the base set of data I would expect. Additional physical information such as elevation or urban, political information such as country and city, or biome information would also be great.
My searches so far has resulted in what seems to be map data when I was expecting something a bit more tabular (columns and rows). I'm sure my confusion is due to ignorance, but I'm at the point where I don't know what I don't know.