There are, but each system has a different scope, and so only collect up articles that they're interested in. For instance:
If you're asking about standards for releasing the metadata ... it's not really set up for individuals to search on, but OAI-PMH (Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) allows for bulk downloading of metadata from repositories that support the standard.
The February memo from OSTP on public access to (US) federally funded research specifically mentions in section 3:
c) Ensure full public access to publications’ metadata without charge upon first publication in a data format that ensures interoperability with current and future search technology. Where possible, the metadata should provide a link to the location where the full text and associated supplemental materials will be made available after the embargo period;
... but we don't yet know how it will be implemented. It might that each agency will keep a registry or repository of the articles developed by their funding, or there might be a centralized one for all agencies, or it might prompt journals to start supporting OAI-PMH to make it easier for Google Scholar and others to aggregate it all in once place.