Say one needs to parse text for any mention of nationality or ethnicity, or otherwise use these terms in the course of an NLP project. Is there a comprehensive resource of English words describing these? The interest is in both adjectives and nouns, e.g. "Turkish" and "Turk."
Both are available in the CIA World Factbook. Nationality names, both noun and adjective, for world countries are available here; ethnicities, listed by country, here. (This may not be historically comprehensive.)
The promised tabular data referenced in the 'Technical' section of the FAQ doesn't seem to exist for this dataset: Light scraping required.
WordNet is a (free) semantic database of the English language. You could query for example the complete hyponym tree of the term "inhabitant". Depending on your application, it could be a disadvantage that WordNet also contains historical ethnicities or nationalities.
For language names, an excellent database is Glottolog.
Once I compiled a dictionary of 200 language names as a csv file in this GitHub repository.