UPD 2017-11-28. There is an amazing collection of soccer data published openly at Kaggle -- European Soccer Database.
Make sure you check the diverse examples of analysis of this dataset -- the so called kernels.
From the data source description:
What you get:
- +25,000 matches
- +10,000 players 11 European Countries with their lead championship
- Seasons 2008 to 2016
- Players and Teams' attributes* sourced from EA Sports' FIFA video game series, including the weekly updates
- Team lineup with squad formation (X, Y coordinates)
- Betting odds from up to 10 providers
- Detailed match events (goal types, possession, corner, cross, fouls, cards etc...) for +10,000 matches
The best website I know is TranferMarkt (it is German but also has a proper English version).
It has all the data available on players throughout their football career. The thing you are probably interested most is called "Performance data" on player's profile pages. For example, Robin van Persie's performance.
I'm not sure how to parse the data properly though, I mean not just look up every player one by one. May be you'll find out how to optimize the data collection.