There Daily Global Weather Measurements, 1929-2009 (NCDC, GSOD) dataset contains:
A collection of daily weather measurements (temperature, wind speed, humidity, pressure, &c.) from 9000+ weather stations around the world.
Global summary of day data for 18 surface meteorological elements are derived from the synoptic/hourly observations contained in USAF DATSAV3 Surface data and Federal Climate Complex Integrated Surface Data (ISD). Historical data are generally available for 1929 to the present, with data from 1973 to the present being the most complete.
The data is global, including ocean measurements, will contain frequent daily measurements as well as latitude and longitude coordinates.
One common way to get this dataset is through the hosting by Amazon Web Services, and the original details are found at the NOAA site.
Caveat: the license says
This data set can only be used within the United States.
So perhaps your 1 year of free tier AWS instance can be set up in the US.