For federal grant applications, specific geographical areas and populations often have to meet minimum qualifications in order to demonstrate a need that allows them to apply for a grant (e.g. median family income 120% or below the HHS poverty guideline).
More advanced and accessible technologies have made it such that you can see what areas meet certain standards, as well as the individual components that make up these standards. This is the case with the USDA Food Access Research Atlas.
However, there is one piece of the puzzle in the case of food deserts that is proprietary data (documentation here). This an example, where a list of supermarkets is made up, in part, from the Trade Dimensions TDLinx directory of stores.
Do the new U.S. government open data standards require that this type of data be made available (even if only in part) to users/groups trying to determine their funding eligibility?
Part of the reason this is of particular interest is because people "on the ground" are able to verify information and, on some occasions, determine whether a given area's eligibility may have changed due to store closure etc.