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Has anyone adapted a microdata format from schema.org for pieces of legislation?

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I'm not aware of any list of metadata in microdata format especially for legislation. Certainly there doesn't seem to be one at schema.org, although some parts of GovernmentOrganization would be applicable.

Concomitant with the existence of a governmental entity is, of course, the jurisdiction with which it's associated. For some uses, AdministrativeArea will serve, particularly where "state" is used as the primary administrative level below the country level. (Of course, even with the United States, you'd have to mislabel such entities as Puerto Rico and DC or omit them.) Purely geographical and/or geophysical schemes don't adapt especially well to identifying jurisdictions either.

The AkomaNtoso schema was created to provide a common structure for "parliamentary, legislative and judicial documents." (Version 3.0 is being prepared and should be released this summer.) As such it provides markup for all aspects and phases of the legislative process. You could make use of the metadata elements in your own schema, insert them as RDF or RDFa (as described here), or make use of them as microdata, as described at [schema.org]{http://schema.org/docs/datamodel.html).

The <meta> element consists of eight different types of metadata, as shown here:

a list of meta elements http://www.akomantoso.org/docs/akoma-ntoso-user-documentation/images-akoma-user-documentation/figure-6-2013-structure-of-meta-container

And then you'll have to figure out not only how you want to classify the legislation but by what mechanism you're going to select the appropriate category.

(Affiliation disclosure -- I belong to the OASIS technical committee for LegalDocML, which is working on version 3.0 now.)

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In its current state Schema.org might not offer a vocabulary that's expressive enough to describe law. Yet since it's under active development and new proposals are being accepted regularly, there's a chance something will be merged into it to provide you with what you need to describe legislation.

Meanwhile, you can have a look at some of the RDF vocabularies and ontologies used to model law by legislation.gov.uk, Metalex in particular.

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schema.org may not have a schema for legislation yet, but you can help develop one: http://www.w3.org/wiki/WebSchemas/SchemaDotOrgProposals

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