I am looking for a data set that determines geo-tagged location for federal and state roads and can also decipher which roads are not classified as federal or state roads.
Any ideas where this information could be sourced from?
For the national highway system you will find all the locations/polylines in the National Highway Planning Network dataset at:
You will also find a girth of geocoded data related to the national transportation system (hubs, railways, airports, etc) under the Bureau of Transportation Statistics - Geospatial Information
As far as state routes, I think you will still have to get that data from each state's transportation or geographic survey sites. Here's a few:
If you end up compiling all the state data together, I recommend placing it in github for the benefit of all.
UPDATE: I had forgotten that I had a web page with a collection of state transportation sites (lol):
One may also find other transportation related data portals at the crowdsourced catalog of open data portals (I am a co-founder of) by selecting the category Transportation: