The best source seems to be the National Crime Victimization Survey, and especially their victim characteristics reports at http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=92
Any others? Any hints on interpreting and working with this data?
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The FBI provides summary data on crime statistics. These tables cover a variety of categories and geographic regions (national, state, county, Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA)).
The start page is here: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/violent-crime
The world bank has a Excel spreadsheet for violent crimes against women on a per country basis. The data is summary (percent/totals).
You might try the National Incident-based Reporting System data (stored at ICPSR). I've not personally worked with these data, but this is based on police reports whereas the NCVS is based on survey self-reports.