I'm building an web-application where users can add plants they want to grow in a list!

So my user would type, for example Oregano, and using that keyword i should be able to collect info regarding that specific plant!

What I'm looking for is a database where I can collect information regarding edible plants such as:

  • Temperature needed
  • Humidity needed
  • Water consumption
  • Light needed
  • Soil required
  • Habitat needed (i.e. African continent)
  • ...

PS: I'm not sure if this is the right forum, I don't know what tags to use for this question. I would prefer if the data was in JSON format! Please be nice.


I wrote a javascript application to get wiki data for the keyword OREGANO, and this is what I get back. I obviously can't work with this because each page would result differently. I only need parameters, such as Low_Temperature: 20, High_Temperature: 34, Light: Partial Shade or something similar!

{{Short description|Perennial herb}}
{{Other uses}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2012}}
|image = Origanum vulgare - harilik pune.jpg
|image_caption = Flowering oregano
|genus = Origanum
|species = vulgare
|authority = [[Carl Linnaeus|L.]]

'''Oregano''' ({{IPAc-en|US|ɔː|ˈ|r|ɛ|g|ə|n|oʊ|,_|ə|-}},<ref name="Collins">{{cite web|url=http://www.CollinsDictionary.com/dictionary/american/oregano?showCookiePolicy=true|title=American: Oregano|access-date=25 September 2014|publisher=Collins Dictionary|date=n.d.}}</ref> {{IPAc-en|UK|ˌ|ɒr|ɪ|ˈ|ɡ|ɑː|n|əʊ}};<ref name="Collins2">{{cite web|url=http://www.CollinsDictionary.com/dictionary/english/oregano?showCookiePolicy=true|title=British: Oregano|access-date=25 September 2014|publisher=Collins Dictionary}}</ref> '''''Origanum vulgare''''') is a [[flowering plant]] in the [[mint family]] (Lamiaceae). It is native to [[temperate]] Western and Southwestern [[Eurasia]] and the [[Mediterranean]] region.

Oregano is a [[Perennial plant|perennial]] [[herb]], growing from {{convert|20|–|80|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} tall, with [[opposite leaves]] {{convert|1|–|4|cm|in|frac=4|abbr=on}} long. The [[flower]]s are purple, {{convert|3|–|4|mm|in|frac=16|abbr=on}} long, produced in erect spikes. It is sometimes called '''wild marjoram''', and its close relative, ''[[Origanum majorana|O. majorana]]'', is known as '''sweet marjoram'''.

Used since the middle [[18th century]], ''oregano'' is derived from the [[Spanish (language)|Spanish]] ''orégano'' and [[Latin]] ''orīganum'' from the [[Classical Greek]] {{lang|grc|ὀρίγανον}} (''orī́ganon'').<ref name="oed">{{cite web|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=oregano|title=Oregano|publisher=Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper, Inc. |access-date=6 October 2016}}</ref> This is a compound Greek term that consists of {{lang|grc|ὄρος}} (''óros'') meaning "mountain", and {{lang|grc|γάνος}} (''gános'') meaning "brightness", thus, "brightness of the mountain".<ref name=oed/>

==Description and biology==
Oregano is related to the herb [[marjoram]], sometimes being referred to as wild marjoram. It has purple flowers and spade-shaped, olive-green leaves. It is a perennial,<ref name="W21">{{cite web|url=http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ORVU|title=Origanum vulgare L. oregano|publisher=Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture|access-date=30 January 2011}}</ref><ref name="W1">{{cite web|url=http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/02-049.htm|title=Growing Culinary Herbs In Ontario|publisher=Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs|access-date=30 January 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100719222438/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/02-049.htm|archive-date=19 July 2010|url-status=dead}}</ref> although it is grown as an annual in colder climates, as it often does not survive the winter.<ref name="B266">{{cite book|last=Peter|first=K. V.|title=Handbook of herbs and spices|chapter-url =https://books.google.com/books?id=jITovbFEuO8C&pg=PA215|access-date =30 January 2011|volume=2|year=2004|publisher=Woodhead Publishing Limited|location=Abington Hall, Abington|isbn=1-85573-721-3|page=219|chapter =14.3.1 Growth habit of wild oregano populations}}</ref><ref name="aW1">{{cite web|url=http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=b1d5ac77-718e-45d1-9aec-ccc6d293e4a1|title=Herbs|date=September 2009|publisher=Government of Saskatchewan|access-date=30 January 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111003060853/http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=b1d5ac77-718e-45d1-9aec-ccc6d293e4a1|archive-date=3 October 2011|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Oregano is planted in early spring, the plants being spaced {{convert|12|in|cm|order=flip|abbr=on|sigfig=1}} apart in fairly dry soil, with full sun. It will grow in a pH range between 6.0 (mildly acidic) and 9.0 (strongly alkaline), with a preferred range between 6.0 and 8.0. It prefers a hot, relatively dry climate, but does well in other environments.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/CropOp/en/herbs/culinary/orega.html|title=Oregano and Marjoram|publisher=Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, Canada|date=17 October 2012|access-date=31 January 2017}}</ref>

[[File:Majorana syriaca - za'atar.jpg|thumb|right|[[Syrian oregano]] (''Origanum syriacum'')]]
[[File:Bombus lucorum - Origanum vulgare - Keila.jpg|thumbnail|Pollination with [[white-tailed bumblebee]]]]
[[File:S oregano.png|thumb|Oregano leaves]]
[[File:Origanum vulgare young plant 2.JPG|thumb|right|Young plant]]
Many subspecies and strains of oregano have been developed by humans over centuries for their unique flavours or other characteristics. Tastes range from spicy or astringent to more complicated and sweet. Simple oregano sold in garden stores as ''Origanum vulgare'' may have a bland taste and larger, less-dense leaves, and is not considered the best for culinary use, with a taste less remarkable and pungent. It can pollinate other more sophisticated strains, but the offspring are rarely better in quality.

The related species, ''[[Origanum onites]]'' (Greece, Turkey) and ''O. syriacum'' (West Asia), have similar flavours. A closely related plant is marjoram from Turkey, which differs significantly in taste though, because [[natural phenol|phenolic compounds]] are missing from its essential oil. Some varieties show a flavour intermediate between oregano and marjoram.

Accepted subspecies:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/namedetail.do?name_id=143954|title=Oregano, ''Origanum vulgare'' L.|publisher=Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK|date=2017}}</ref>
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''glandulosum'' <small>(Desf.) Ietsw.</small> – Tunisia, Algeria
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''gracile''  <small>(K.Koch) Ietsw.</small> (= ''O. tyttanthum'')  has glossy green leaves and pink flowers. It grows well in pots or containers, and is more often grown for added ornamental value than other oregano. The flavor is pungent and spicy.<ref name=drugs/> – Central Asia, Iran, India, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan. 
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''hirtum''  <small>(Link) Ietsw.</small> – (Italian oregano, Greek oregano) is a common source of cultivars with a different aroma<ref name=drugs/> from those of ''O. v. gracile''. Growth is vigorous and very hardy, with darker green, slightly hairy foliage. Generally, it is considered the best all-purpose culinary subspecies. – Greece, Balkans, Turkey, Cyprus
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''virens'' <small>(Hoffmanns. & Link) Ietsw.</small> – Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Azores, Madeira
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''viridulum'' <small>(Martrin-Donos) Nyman</small> – widespread from Corsica to Nepal 
# ''O. v.'' subsp. ''vulgare'' – widespread across Europe + Asia from Ireland to China; naturalized in North America + Venezuela

Example [[cultivars]] of oregano include:
* 'Aureum' – golden foliage (greener if grown in shade), mild taste: It has gained the [[Royal Horticultural Society]]'s [[Award of Garden Merit]]<ref>{{cite web|title=RHS Plant Selector – ''Origanum vulgare'' 'Aureum'|url=https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/89773/Origanum-vulgare-Aureum/Details | access-date = 16 January 2021}}</ref> 
* 'Greek Kaliteri' – ''O. v.'' subsp. ''hirtum'' strains/[[landrace]]s, small, hardy, dark, compact, thick, silvery-haired leaves, usually with purple undersides, excellent reputation for flavor and pungency, as well as medicinal uses, strong, archetypal oregano flavor ([[Greek (language)|Greek]] ''kaliteri'': the best)
* 'Hot & Spicy' – ''O. v.'' subsp. ''hirtum'' strain
* 'Nana' – dwarf cultivar
Cultivars traded as Italian, Sicilian, etc. are usually hardy sweet marjoram ([[Origanum ×majoricum|''O.'' ×''majoricum'']]), a [[hybrid (biology)|hybrid]] between the southern [[Adriatic]] ''O. v.'' subsp. ''hirtum'' and sweet marjoram (''O. majorana''). They have a reputation for sweet and spicy tones, with little bitterness, and are prized for their flavor and compatibility with various recipes and sauces.

{{more citations needed section|date=November 2017}}

[[File:Oregano (অরেগানো).JPG|thumb|Dried Oregano Leaves]]

Oregano is a culinary herb, used for the flavor of its leaves, which can be more flavorful when dried than fresh. It has an [[aroma]]tic, warm, and slightly [[Bitter (taste)|bitter]] taste, which can vary in intensity. Good-quality oregano may be strong enough almost to numb the tongue, but cultivars adapted to colder climates may have a lesser flavor. Factors such as climate, season, and soil composition may affect the aromatic oils present, and this effect may be greater than the differences between the various species of plants. Among the chemical compounds contributing to the flavour are [[carvacrol]], thymol, [[limonene]], [[pinene]], [[ocimene]], and [[caryophyllene]].<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00474-X |pmid=11336262 |title=The essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. Ssp. Vulgare growing wild in Vilnius district (Lithuania) |journal=Phytochemistry |volume=57 |issue=1 |pages=65–9 |year=2001 |last1=Mockute |first1=Danute |last2=Bernotiene |first2=Genovaite |last3=Judzentiene |first3=Asta }}</ref>

Oregano's most prominent modern use is as the staple herb of [[Italian cuisine]]. Its popularity in the U.S. began when soldiers returning from [[World War II]] brought back with them a taste for the "pizza herb", which had probably been eaten in southern Italy for centuries.<ref>{{cite news |last=Martyris |first=Nina |date=May 9, 2015 |title=GIs Helped Bring Freedom To Europe, And A Taste For Oregano To America |url=https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/05/09/405302961/gis-helped-bring-freedom-to-europe-and-a-taste-for-oregano-to-america |publisher=[[NPR]] |access-date=May 28, 2018}}</ref> There, it is most frequently used with roasted, fried, or grilled vegetables, meat, and fish. Oregano combines well with spicy foods popular in southern Italy. It is less commonly used in the north of the country, as marjoram generally is preferred.

The herb is widely used in [[cuisine]]s of the [[Mediterranean Basin]] and [[Latin American cuisine|Latin America]], especially in [[Argentine cuisine]].

In Turkish cuisine, oregano is mostly used for flavoring meat, especially for [[mutton]] and lamb. In barbecue and [[kebab]] restaurants,{{Clarify|reason=does this refer to a restaurant in Turkey that serves various kebab dishes, or a [[kebab shop]] that sells fast-food [[Doner kebab]]?|date=May 2016}} it can be usually found as a [[condiment]], together with [[paprika]], salt, and pepper.

During the summer, generous amounts of dried oregano are often added as the aromatic and flavorful topping to a tomato and cucumber salad in [[Portugal]], but it can be used to season meat and fish dishes as well.

The dried and ground leaves are most often used in Greece to add flavor to [[Greek salad]], and is usually added to the lemon-olive oil sauce that accompanies fish or meat grills and [[casserole]]s.

===Oregano oil===
[[File:OreganoEssentialOil.png|thumb|Oregano essential oil in a clear glass vial]]

Oregano oil has been used in [[Traditional medicine|folk medicine]] over centuries.<ref name="drugs">{{cite web | url=https://www.drugs.com/npp/oregano.html | title=Oregano | publisher=Drugs.com | date=2016 | access-date=7 October 2016}}</ref> Oregano essential oil is extracted from the leaves of the oregano plant. Although oregano or its oil may be used as a [[dietary supplement]], there is no clinical evidence to indicate that either has any effect on human health.<ref name=drugs/><ref name="mp">{{cite web | url=https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/644.html | title=Oregano | publisher=MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine | date=2016 | access-date=7 October 2016}}</ref>

In 2014, the US [[Food and Drug Administration]] (FDA) warned a [[Utah]] company, [[Young Living]], that its herbal products, including oregano [[essential oil]], were being promoted to have numerous unproven anti-disease effects, and so were being sold as unauthorized misbranded [[prescription drug|drugs]] subject to seizure and federal penalties.<ref name="fda">{{cite web|url=https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/warning-letters/young-living-09222014|title=Warning Letter: Young Living|author=LaTonya M. Mitchell|publisher= Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration|date=22 September 2014|access-date=7 October 2016}}</ref> Similar FDA [[FDA warning letter|warning letters]] for false advertising and unproven [[health claim]]s about oregano essential oil products were published in 2017 and 2018.<ref name="fda2">{{cite web|url=https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/warning-letters/absonutrix-508557-07252017|title=Warning Letter: Absonutrix|author=Ingrid A. Zambrana|publisher= Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration|date=25 July 2017|access-date=18 May 2019}}</ref><ref name="fda3">{{cite web|url=https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/warning-letters/long-life-unlimited-533282-01312018|title=Warning Letter: Long Life Unlimited|author=Kimberly L. McMillan|publisher= Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration|date=31 January 2018|access-date=18 May 2019}}</ref>

==Chemical components==
Oregano contains [[polyphenol]]s, including numerous [[flavone]]s.<ref name="Dragland2003">{{cite journal|url=http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12730411|last1=Dragland|first1=Steinar|last2=Senoo|first2=Haruki |last3=Wake|first3=Kenjiro|last4=Holte|first4=Kari|last5=Blomhoff|first5=Rune|title=Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants|journal=Journal of Nutrition|volume=133|issue=5|pages=1286–90|date=1 May 2003|doi=10.1093/jn/133.5.1286|issn=0022-3166|pmid=12730411|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1080/14786419.2014.896011|pmid=24635145|title=Origanum species native to the island of Crete: in vitro antioxidant characteristics and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry identification of major polyphenolic components|journal=[[Natural Product Research]]|volume=28|issue=16|pages=1284–7|year=2014|last1=Tair|first1=Asma|last2=Weiss|first2=Erika-Krisztina|last3=Palade|first3=Laurentiu Mihai|last4=Loupassaki|first4=Sofia|last5=Makris|first5=Dimitris P.|last6=Ioannou|first6=Efstathia|last7=Roussis|first7=Vassilios|last8=Kefalas|first8=Panagiotis|s2cid=42500633}}</ref>

The essential oil of oregano is composed primarily of [[monoterpenoid]]s and [[monoterpenes]], with the relative concentration of each compound varying widely across geographic origin and other factors. Over 60 different compounds have been identified, with the primary ones being carvacrol and [[thymol]] ranging to over 80%, while lesser abundant compounds include [[p-cymene|''p''-cymene]], [[γ-terpinene]], caryophyllene, [[spathulenol]], [[germacrene D]], [[β-fenchyl alcohol]] and [[δ-terpineol]].<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1002/jsfa.6089|pmid=23553824|title=Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (''Origanum vulgare'') extracts and essential oil|journal=[[Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture]]|volume=93|issue=11|pages=2707–14|year=2013|last1=Teixeira |first1=Bárbara|last2=Marques|first2=António|last3=Ramos|first3=Cristina|last4=Serrano|first4=Carmo|last5=Matos|first5=Olívia |last6=Neng|first6=Nuno R|last7=Nogueira|first7=José M F|last8=Saraiva|first8=Jorge Alexandre|last9=Nunes|first9=Maria Leonor}}</ref>

Drying of the plant material affects both quantity and distribution of volatile compounds, with methods using higher heat and longer drying times having greater negative impact. A sample of fresh whole plant material found to contain 33 g/kg dry weight (3.1 g/kg wet) decreased to below a third after warm-air convection drying. Much higher concentrations of volatile compounds are achieved towards the end of the growing season.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.01.002|title=Composition of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) as affected by drying method|journal=[[Journal of Food Engineering]]|volume=98|issue=2|pages=240–7|year=2010|last1=Figiel |first1=Adam|last2=Szumny|first2=Antoni|last3=Gutiérrez-Ortíz|first3=Antonio|last4=Carbonell-Barrachina|first4=Ángel A.}}</ref>

==Other plants called "oregano"==

* ''[[Coleus amboinicus]]'', known as Cuban oregano, {{lang|es|orégano poleo}} ('[[Hedeoma|pennyroyal]] oregano'), {{lang|fr|orégano francés}} ('French oregano'), Mexican mint, Mexican thyme, and many other names, is also of the mint family (Lamiaceae).  It has large and somewhat [[succulent]] leaves.  Common throughout the tropics, including Latin America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, it is probably of eastern-hemisphere origin.
* ''[[Lippia graveolens]]'', Mexican oregano, known in Spanish as {{lang|es|orégano cimarrón}} ('wild oregano'), is not in the mint family, but in the related [[vervain family]] (Verbenaceae). The flavor of Mexican oregano has a stronger savory component instead of the piney hint of rosemary-like flavor in true oregano, and its citrus accent might be more aromatic than in oregano. It is becoming more commonly sold outside of Mexico, especially in the southeastern United States. It is sometimes used as a substitute for [[epazote]] leaves.<!-- Move most of this material – to the extent any of it can be sourced – to the article on that plant. See WP:COATRACK. -->
* ''[[Hedeoma patens]]'', known in Spanish as {{lang|es|orégano chiquito}} ('small oregano'), is also among the Lamiaceae.  It is used as an herb in the Mexican states of [[Chihuahua (state)|Chihuahua]] and [[Coahuila]].

==See also==
* ''[[Thymus vulgaris]]'', thyme


==External links==
{{Commons|Origanum vulgare}}
* [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/cgi-bin/nph-readbtree.pl/feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Origanum+&SPECIES_XREF=vulgare&TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK= Flora Europaea: ''Origanum vulgare'']
* [https://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?25913 Germplasm Resources Information Network: ''Origanum vulgare'']

{{Herbs & spices}}
{{Medicinal herbs & fungi}}
{{Transient receptor potential channel modulators}}
{{Authority control}}

[[Category:Flora of Asia]]
[[Category:Flora of Europe]]
[[Category:Medicinal plants]]
[[Category:New Mexican cuisine]]
[[Category:Plants described in 1753]]

Wikidata has a category "Edible plants"

This would be the data behind this list, but most languages will also be linked.

You can use the Sparql front-end to build a query:

And request either on this site, or

  • Not exactly what I was looking for. For example I looked for Broccoli and Cauliflower to see what similarities are there. Broccoli has no information regarding the soil needed to plant them, and for cauliflower there is minimal information about the soil. Also none of them mention water consumption needed for that specific plant. I can imagine there would be plants with no information at all about such cases.... – programming_ritual Apr 28 at 9:28
  • Also regarding networking: when you look for a brocolli etc on wikipedia, what happens is that you send a POST request to the wiki server using that specific keyword. When the server analyse that request it sends back a GET request with a bunch of text using jquery. that is no helpful to me. I would spend a lifetime getting this to work, and who knows maybe more. Also a simple change in how wiki handles these requests would ruin my program. Although it is interesting, are there any alternatives? – programming_ritual Apr 28 at 9:31

https://garden.org/plants/search/advanced/ might be a starting point.

You can select plants with edible fruits (for example), but you don't get all the results because there are too many.

There also doesn't appear to be an easy way to download their database, though you could use a site scraper or similar.

Detail pages like https://garden.org/plants/view/78036/Pink-Evening-Primrose-Oenothera-speciosa/ seem to provide much of the information you seek.

  • It's too complected and it will required a lot of processing power to do all that. Besides, a single change in their website will ruin the web-scrapping technique! Thanks for your reply though! :D – programming_ritual May 5 at 9:38
  • @LoizosVasileiou I actually meant scrape the whole website one time, not scrape it every time you need a new entry. I don't think it would be that difficult. If you google "plant database" or "edible plant database" (both without quotes) there are other sources, but none of them have the details you want re what environment the plant grows best in. – Guest May 5 at 13:12

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