How would I go about finding a dataset of IP addresses of backbone routers? Looking around on Google didn't seem to help. Is this information available somewhere?
I suggest you use data from Caida (Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis). In particular their Macroscopic Internet Topology Data Kit (ITDK) may suite your needs.
Quoting from the above page:
The ITDK contains data about connectivity and routing gathered from a large cross-section of the global Internet. This dataset is useful for studying the topology of the Internet at the router-level, among other uses.
The latest ITDK release, 2013-07, currently consists of
- two related router-level topologies,
- router-to-AS assignments,
- geographic location of each router, and
- DNS lookups of all observed IP addresses.
This image is prominent on the Wikipedia article for Internet backbone.
Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. This is a small look at the backbone of the Internet.
The source and raw data can be obtained from http://www.opte.org/maps/.
Unfortunately, the data is from 2005.
If you can tolerate the HTML, you can find long lists of T3 nodes here: http://cities.lk.net/trlist.html All of their links to world maps are dead, unfortunately.