I am searching for a online database for climate data (especially temperature) for non-european countries on a monthly basis. 1990-2014 would be nice.
The UNDP gathers and reports data along the line of what you are looking for. I think its a matter of finding the right tables. They collect historic data as well as predicating climate changes to countries.
The following link is a repository of some reports and raw data for 61 countries, mostly africa, middle east and south america. Each country has a zip file (AllData). Search through the subfolders looking for time series.
Note, this copy of the data is hosted by University of Oxford, Department of Geography and the environment. The time series are on a year basis (no monthly) and range from 1960 to 2006.
If you are looking for global temperatures that are not constrained to political borders, then you can access 150 years of global temperatures either as a dataset or with Google Earth as an interface. The data is based on latitude and longitude grids of 5 degrees and includes temperature, precipitation, pressure, etc..
The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Researchs offers teamperature data of 289 countries (and territories) in a monthly frequency for the years 1901-2000:
The US government just last week released climate.data.gov.
From their announcement :
Data from NOAA, NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies will be featured on climate.data.gov, a new section within data.gov that opens for business today. The first batch of climate data being made available will focus on coastal flooding and sea level rise. NOAA and NASA will also be announcing an innovation challenge calling on researchers and developers to create data-driven simulations to help plan for the future and to educate the public about the vulnerability of their own communities to sea level rise and flood events.
They also released a fact sheet.
(disclaimer : I work as a contractor for one of the federal agencies that's contributing data, but I don't deal with earth science data)
Here is a recently updated climate data set from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit:
It covers 1901-2014, with variables broken down by country at monthly, quarterly and annual intervals.
Have you tried Google BigQuery?
GBQ has now loaded climate data worldwide from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) from over 9,000 weather stations. The data includes 2015 and 2016.
You can query the climate data set using SQL. This queries 14 days of max temperatures (tested just now):
SELECT year, mo, da, temp FROM [bigquery-public-data:noaa_gsod.gsod2015] WHERE year = '2015' AND mo = '01' AND INTEGER(da) > 7 AND INTEGER(da) < 21
Here are a few columns from the data dictionary:
stn STRING NULLABLE Station number (WMO/DATSAV3 number) for the location wban STRING NULLABLE WBAN number where applicable--this is the historical "Weather Bureau Air Force Navy" number - with WBAN being the acronym year STRING NULLABLE The year mo STRING NULLABLE The month da STRING NULLABLE The day temp FLOAT NULLABLE Mean temperature for the day in degrees Fahrenheit to tenths. Missing = 9999.9
BigQuery allows 1 terabyte of queries for free each month.
The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has various data sets on climate and weather. The ERA-Interim data set is a reanalysis of the weather fed by measurements all over the world since 1979. Temperatures at various levels in the atmosphere (or surface) are available, as well as many other parameters, usually at 6 hour intervals.
The link to the data sets: http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/
Huge datasets of climatic data for North America, South America and Europe are available from the University of Alberta (Canada):
The download links...provide access to grids of interpolated data 1km and 4km resolution, as well as software packages to query point locations. We provide historical climate normal periods, decadal averages, annual, seasonal and monthly data from 1901-2013 as well as multi-model climate projections for the 2020s, 2050s, 2080s on the pages below. We also calculate a large number of derived variables of economic or biological relevance, such as drought indices, growing degree days, heating and cooling degree days, frost-free periods, etc. All together, more than 20,000 spatial coverages of climate variables can be downloaded and/or interactively queried for individual locations.