Try going to the canonical source of the data; data.gov is a metadata portal first and foremost. Inevitably, there will be somethings lost in translation, most likely because of linkrot.
data.gov's catalog points to datasets created by 3rd party canonical authors/sources; these 3rd parties (in this context, almost entirely U.S. federal government agencies) can be found/tracked by viewing the breadcrumbs and/or the logo in the content document of the dataset.
For example, the College Scorecard dataset document on data.gov denotes the owner of the dataset in a number of places, including: breadcrumbs ("Department of Education"), and in agency/department/organization logo in the right column of the document. The following image is a screenshot of this datasets document on data.gov, showing these examples:
The correct answer to 'How to download College Scorecard raw data' in this context then, is to download it from the source.
The difference between the two is data.gov points to the
.app subdomain, while College Scorecard points to the
College Scorecard Data (Canonical Source) is where I found the raw data link, and there's other information there regarding the dataset as well.
The initial solution, and always the immediate goto once something goes missing from the web, is the Wayback Machine. Wayback has a few versions, here is one from 2017-02, available here