USPTO has a Bulk Data sub domain which has many datasets that fit this description for you to pick through. Here's a description of two:
Patent Grant Single-Page TIFF Images (July 31, 1790 - Present)
Metadata Updated: September 17, 2015
Contains the images of each patent grant issued weekly (Tuesdays) from July 31, 1790 to Present in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) Revision 6.0 with CCITT Group 4 Compression (single-page TIFFs) from the USPTO Patent Grant Image/TIFF (a.k.a., Yellow Book 2) product. Five types of files are included: grant_yb2_yyyymmdd.tar: The main patent grant single-page TIFF images. grant_yb2_yyyymmdd_cert.tar: The daily Certificates file (contains Reexaminations) "_cert.tar". cofc_yb2_yyyymmdd.tar: The Certificates-of-Correction (C-of-C) single-page TIFF images. cofc_yb2_yyyymmdd_pta.tar: Patent Term Adjustment (PTA) C-of-C single-page TIFF images [where "yyyymmdd" is a Tuesday issue date]. Bnnnnn.tar: Rescans of miscellaneous documents from miscellaneous years (July 31, 1790 - Present). The filename relates to a Digital Linear Tape (DLT) cartridge. Approx. 4,000 patent application publications per week. Approx. 6 GB per week. Backfiles are approx. 10 GB. Entire collection approx. 8 TB. http://patents.reedtech.com/pgyb.php
Patent Grant Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Text (1920 - 1979)
Metadata Updated: April 4, 2017
Contains patent grant text produced by an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process using selected U.S. Patent Grant Image data from January 1920 through December 1979 as input. The file format is modified Patent Full-Text/APS (a.k.a., modified Green Book), ASCII text. Approx. 63 GB (compressed). http://patents.reedtech.com/pgocr.php
Google BigQuery Public Datasets allow for export, but I can't find a bulk download option, so this may not be worth your while/not an option.
Amazon's Public Datasets
Many more options listed here on Stack Overflow
NASA also has data that fits your requirements. specifically in space datasets, more specifically exo-planetary data.
NASA OpenNEX - NASA Earth Exchange (Climate Data)
More .gov options:
Satellite imagery: Landsat/LiDAR (NASA, NOAA, USDA, USGS)
Annual federal U.S. datasets; these typically are released in many forms, including national and state levels; the national set(s) will fit your description too. Bureau of Transportation (Highways), FCC (Broadband), etc. These are going to come around the low end of your requirements, but should provide some more variety.