I want to know the position of some well-known astronomical objects as deep in the past as possible.
Which is the open database of astronomical objects with the oldest historical records?
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Historical records have been superseded observations of modern scientific satellites (especially with respect to positioning data). Older catalogs dating back to the late 1800s were useful for identifying the stars themselves. Many of these identifiers have been carried over into the 21st century.
I compiled a list of these well known catalogs here:
The "Catalogs" folder contains normalized versions of existing catalogs. The oldest catalog listed there is NGC2000.0 which is a revised version of the New General Catalog (published 1888).